American Concrete Institute (ACI) 1980. Guide to Concrete Floor and Slab Construction, 302.1R-80, 46 pp., Detroit, Michigan.


American Concrete Institute (ACI) 1983. Construction of Slabs on Grade, SCM4-83, 96 pp., Detroit, Michigan.


ASHRAE 1989a. ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, American Society of Heating , Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia.


ASHRAE 1989b. ASHRAE Standard 90.2P Draft 89-1, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Georgia, March, 1989.


Christian, J.E., Strzepek, W. R. 1987. Procedure for Determining the Optimum Foundation Insulation Levels for New, Low-Rise Residential Buildings, ASHRAE Transactions, V. 93, Pt. 1, January, 1987.


Christian, J.E. 1989. Worksheet for Selection of Optimal Foundation Insulation, Conference on Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings IV, Orlando, Florida, December 4-7, 1989.


Council of American Building Officials 1989. Model Energy Code, 1989 Edition, The Council of American Building Officials, Falls Church, Virginia, March, 1989.


Crandell, Jay H. (2010).  Below-Ground Performance of Rigid Polystyrene Foam Insulation: Review of Effective Thermal Resistivity Values Used in ASCE Standard 32-01—Design and Construction of Frost-Protected Shallow Foundations.  Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, June 2010 p. 35.


Dudney, C.S., Hubbard, L.M., Matthews, T.G., Scolow, R.H., Hawthorne, A.R., Gadsby, K.J., Harrje, D.T., Bohac, D.L., Wilson, D.L. 1988. Investigation of Radon Entry and Effectiveness of Mitigation Measures in Seven Houses in New Jersey, ORNL-6487, Draft, September, 1988.


EPA 1987. Radon Reduction in New Construction: An Interim Guide, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Offices of Air and Radiation and Research an Development, Washington, D.C., 20460, EPA-87-009, August, 1987.


EPA 1993. Radon Reduction Techniques for Detached Houses: Technical Guidance,  EPA 625/R-93-011, October 1993.  Accessed on 9/19/12 from:


Goldberg, L. 2005: Minnesota Energy Code Building Foundation Rule: Amendment Proposal Development Project Final Report: Recommendations for a Minnesota Energy Code Foundation Rule.  University of Minnesota, Building Physics and Foundations Research Programs.  Accessed from:

International Code Council (ICC) 2011:  2012 International Residential Code for One-and Two-Family Dwellings.


Jones, R.A. 1980. Crawl Space Houses, Circular Series F4.4, Small Homes Council/Building Research Council, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, 8 pp.


Kehrer, M., Christian, J.:  Measurement of Exterior Foundation Insulation to Assess Durability in Energy-Saving Performance.  Oak Ridge National Laboratory, April 2012.  Accessed on 9/19/2012 from: 


Labs, K., Carmody, J., Sterling, R., Shen, L., Huang, Y.J., Parker, D. 1988. Building Foundation Design Handbook, ORNL/Sub/ 86-72143/1, May, 1988.


Lstiburek, J. 2006:  Builder’s Guide to Cold Climates.  Building Science Corporation.  Also see climate-specific editions for Hot Humid, Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry, and Mixed Humid climates.


National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) 2004: Revised Builder's Guide to Frost Protected Shallow Foundations (FPSFs).   Accessed on 5/11/2012 from: 


National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) 2006: Termite Protection for Exterior Insulated Foundation Systems  Accessed on 5/11/2012 from: 


National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 1984. Evaluation of Occupational


Ueno, K. and Lstiburek, J., 2011:  RR-1108: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits: Measure Guidelines


U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program.   Accessed on 5/31/12 from:


World Health Organization (WHO), 2009: WHO handbook on indoor radon: a public health perspective.  Accessed on 9/19/12 from:



  1. Baechler, M.C., Taylor, Z.T., Bartlett, R., gilbride, T., Heft, M., Steward, H., Love, P., and Palmer, J.A.: Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4.  National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2005.   Web. 8 August 2012
  2. Lstiburek, Joseph. " BSI-003: Concrete Floor Problems — Building Science Information ."Building Science Corporation. N.p., 20 May 2008. Web. 13 June 2010.
  3. Building Science Corporation (BSC). " RR-0202: Basement Insulation Systems ."  10 Nov. 2002. Web. 14 June 2010.
  4. Building Science Corporation (BSC). " Mixed-Humid House Design Recommendations — Building Science Information ." N.p., 9 Nov. 2006. Web. 24 June 2010.
  5. Florida Department of Community Affairs (FDCA). “ Draft 2007 Florida Building Code, Residential.  Modified from the 2006 International Residential code and the 2004 FBC .” Building Codes and Standards.    1 July 2010.



  1. Building Science Corporation (BSC). " Mixed-Humid House Design Recommendations — Building Science Information ." N.p., 9 Nov. 2006. Web. 24 June 2010.
  2. Dastur, Cyrus, Bruce Davis, and Bill Warren, “ Closed Crawlspacess:  An Introduction to Design, Construction and Performance – An Introduction for the Southeast .”  Advanced Energy. 2005.  Web. 24 June 2010.
  3. Davis, Bruce, et. al. “ Field Study Final Report – A Field Study Comparison of the Energy and Moisture Performance Characteristics of Ventilated Versus Sealed Crawl Spaces in the South .”  Advanced Energy.  Instrument # DE-FC26-00NT40995. N.p., 22 June 2005. Web. 23 June 2010.
  4. Lstiburek, Joseph W: BSI-009: New Light in Crawlspaces .   Building Science Corporation.  October 2008 Web. 15 August 2012.
  5. Marshall, Bennie.  “ Your Crawlspace:  The Foundation of a Healthy Home .” Carolina Green Energy Systems.  19 May 2008. Web. 29 June 2010.
  6. Renovation “ Insulation Basics - Part 4 .” Renovation Headquarters - DIY Remodeling, Home Improvement & Renovation Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 July 2010.



  1. Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH). " Moisture-Resistant Homes:  A Best Practice Guide and Plan Review Tool for Builders and Designers with a Supplemental Guide for Homeowners. " Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing - PATHnet. N.p. March 2006, n.d. Web. 25 June 2010.
  2. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). " Energy Savers: Slab-on-Grade Foundation Moisture and Air Leakage Control. EERE: Energy Savers Home Page. N.p., 24 Mar. 2009. Web. 24 June 2010.
  3. Lstiburek, Joseph. " BSI-003: Concrete Floor Problems — Building Science Information " Building Science Corporation. N.p., 20 May 2008. Web. 13 July 2010.
  4. Lstiburek, Joseph. " BSD-103: Understanding Basements — Building Science Information ."Building Science Corporation. N.p., 27 Oct. 2006. Web. 25 June 2010.